عنوان مقاله [English]
Muḥammad Ibn Zakariyā al-Rāzī has been considered by researchers in terms of different aspects. Al-Rāzī's theory of perfection of the soul has forced him into reincarnation. His concept of reincarnation implies two propositions: (1) only human is rational, not other animals, and (2) human soul enters the body of the animal and eventually returns to the human body. These propositions raise two questions: How is it possible that the human rational soul becomes irrational in animal bodies and vice versa? If the souls of animals lack reason, how do they survive after death? In order to solve this dilemma, on the one hand, Druart has considered a hierarchy of rationality among animals and, on the other hand, Adamson criticized Druart's view, emphasizing that al-Rāzī does not hold in reincarnation. By criticizing both views, the authors, applying critical and descriptive analysis, suggest that the survival of the soul is not dependent on rationality and that rationality, which could merely be achieved in human body's structure, is not an innate state for the soul. Although the view of reincarnation faces many problems, this investigation can pave the way for further research on the nature of the soul.