Sadrian Contemplations; Mulla Sadra's Heideggerian and Existentialistic Potentialities Ja'far Morvarid Mohammad Khalili Abstract A comparative look at two philosophers philosophized in two different traditions is a very difficult task and thus requires deep contemplation and great attention, particularly when they are Mulla Sadra and Heidegger and the former's final end of philosophy is metaphysics and that of the latter is to reject it. Fortunately, however, both of them put emphasis on existence, which makes it somewhat easier to compare them and gives us the motivation and more hope to endeavor in this regard. Although there are fundamental differences between these two genius philosophers' view on the issue of existence, we can find some similarities in their thoughts, which we call them "Mulla Sadra's Heideggerian potentialities". The present paper seeks to show these similarities through six meditations: 1) meditation on the denial of conceptual knowledge in the thoughts of these two philosophers; 2) meditation on the denial of the duality of subject and object; 3) meditation on the existential analysis of the truth and denial of its traditional and correspondent concept; 4) meditation on the existential analysis of human being; 5) meditation on the concealment of Being and how it explores; and 6) meditation on “being-towards-death” as a fundamental aspect of human being in the thoughts of these two philosophers. Key words: Heidegger, Mulla Sadra, knowledge, fundamentality of existence, existential, subject.
A Reflection on Regarding Intellectual Virtues as Adequate to Acquire Knowledge Gholam Hussein Jawadpoor Abstract Gettier’s objections to the definition of “true justified belief” compelled the epistemologists to think about and provide an inclusive and exclusive definition of knowledge. In the new approach of virtue-based epistemology, it is claimed that the epistemic agent achieves the truth just if the intellectual and epistemic virtues are resorted to in the process of acquiring knowledge, thus knowledge is defined as “a belief resulted from the act of intellectual virtues”. This new approach and the transmitting the theory of virtue into the realm of epistemology faces many challenges, some of which are related to the principle of applying the virtues including ambiguity in the quantity and quality of the intellectual virtues, not providing a solution for contradiction between these virtues, inadequate reasons for separating intellectual virtues from moral virtues and ambiguity in the epistemic function of the faculty of practical wisdom. On the other hand, the claim that the application of intellectual virtues corresponding to each and every epistemic circumstance guides to truthfulness is disputable both as a general claim and as an inclusive one. Aside from the advantages of this theory, the constructive and destructive reasons indicate that it is incorrect to regard the function of intellectual virtues as adequate to achieve the truthfulness of the beliefs. Providing a brief review of this approach to Zagzebski’s account, the present paper criticizes the claim that the function of intellectual virtues would be necessary and sufficient to acquire knowledge. Key words: virtue-based epistemology, intellectual virtues, Gettier, regarding as adequate, acquiring knowledge, Zagzebski.
Dualism in Platonic Theology Mohammad Firoozkoohi Ali Akbar Ahmadi Aframjani Abstract Plato's theology as a part of his intellectual system is under the influence of some components which has affected his entire thoughts. As he proposes intellectual and sensual realms in the field of ontology and metaphysics under the influence of his own Parmenidean and Heraclitean heritage, so he propounds a transcendent realm in the field of theology, in which such features as stability and even a kind of similarity with theological systems of religions can be found. However, he needs some gods to play a role in the changing world in order to exert influence and explain these changes. Therefore, a kind of theology related to this worldly realm or an emanative theology in formed. As a result, Plato's promised and familiar dualism in ontology and epistemology appears in theology as well. The present paper claims that demiurge and goodness can be regarded as two sides of a same coin and demiurge as a more individualistic and enclosed form for supreme and transcendent goodness. Key words: theology, transcendence, immanence, negative attitude, dualism, demiurge.
The Theory of Modes from Theology to Philosophy Ali Tabatabaii Najafi Ghasim Poorhassan Darzi Abstract The theory of modes has been officially propounded for the first time by the Mu'tazilite theologian Abu Hashim Jobayei. This theory, which is related to issue of Divine attributes, has been proposed to confront with the constraint of polytheism. However, many philosophers and theologians have rejected it. Philosophers' views apparently indicate that they regard the theory of modes and the theory of subsistent as synonymous. Therefore, the criticism of the theory of modes is evaluated in the context of its difference with the theory of subsistent and challenges against its developers. Critics of these two theories mainly emphasize on the irrationality of intermediary between existence and non-existence and criticize theological views using this ontological approach and focusing on the Divine knowledge of the non-existent. In fact, the theory of modes, apart from the quality of divine knowledge, is related to the manner of qualifying God with absolute attributes and is similarly propounded in Shi'a thoughts by Hisham b. Hakam before its proposition in Mu'tazilite school. The congruence of the aforementioned theologians' and philosophers' views on the relationship between essence and attributes provides the ground for pursuing the hidden relationship between their views with mystical ones, which separates mystics from philosophers. Therefore, Historical rereading of this theory and recounting of its functions is necessary due to the importance of the issue of God's attributes on the one hand, and the Shi'ite school's record of such theories and its particular discussions of subtle doctrinal issues on the other hand. Key words: modes, subsistents, pseudo-modes simile, denial of divine attributes, the relationship between essence and attributes.
The Role of Anthropological Foundations of the Muslim Brotherhood in Islamic Proximity Habib Hatami Kankabood Mahdi Farmanian Abstract The Muslim Brotherhood, as an influential and popular movement, has had intellectual, cultural, and political activities in more than 70 countries, so studying their intellectual foundations, including anthropological ones, is of great importance. The Muslim Brotherhood views man as the creature of God, a two dimensional being composed of body and soul, of great abilities and innate human dignity. Therefore, Muslim Brotherhood thinkers believe that all men have such rights as equality, freedom, and mutual respect. Accordingly, pioneering in proximity of Islamic denominations and avoiding excommunication (Takfir) of other Islamic sects is one of the achievements of Muslim Brotherhood. This movement was founded by Hassan al-Banna, one of the founders of “Dar al-Taqrib Bayn al-Madhahib al-Islamiyya (the Center for Proximity of Islamic Denominations)". Reviewing library sources and gathering the relevant data and analyzing them with a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper studies the anthropological foundations of the Muslim Brotherhood movement and its role in "Islamic proximity". Key words: Muslim Brotherhood, anthropological foundations, innate dignity, human fights, proximity.
The Epistemic Function of Imagination and Persuasion in Farabi's View Fattaneh Tavanapanah Nadia Maftooni Abstract In Farabi's view, imagination and persuasion is of great importance in two conceptual and assertive dimensions. This issue along with his assertion of superiority of absolute limit and certainty should be explained. In his view, most people do not achieve the state of intellectual cognition. By imagination Farabi means that a single and subsistent reality becomes analogue according to individuals' cognitive abilities. Persuasion is a kind of belief which is possibly subject to contradiction and opposition. Using imagination and persuasion, we can reduce rational conceptual and assertive realities corresponding to individuals' cognition and capacity and thus speak of the necessity of conceptual and assertive knowledge. These advantages will come true if imagination depends on a real concept and persuasion depends on certainty. Therefore, persuasion and imagination can be regarded as important epistemic sources in Farabi's view. Key word: imagination, persuasion, concept, assertion.
Contemplations on the Theory of Bodily Resurrection in Aqa Ali Modarres's View Mohammad Reza Ershadinia Abstract One of controversial issues among theological and philosophical problems is the explanation of the quality of "bodily resurrection". Some scholars believe that its quality is restricted to elemental bodily resurrection and others have left it to imitation. However, transcendent philosophy, with its dispositional principles, seeks to explain the quality of bodily resurrection. Aqa Ali Modarres tries to provide an innovative explanation for the quality of bodily resurrection without any change in Sadrian principles, which would be another logical conclusion against Sadra's one from the same principles. He rejects elemental resurrection of the body and the return of soul to this worldly body, and does not define the body as subject to soul's creativity in hereafter. Rather, he believes that this worldly body traverses toward perfection and unity with soul under its influence after death. The success of his theory owes to removing ambiguities and objections which are logically directed to the theory. These contemplations can be restated on the basis of two points: the relationship between body and soul, and purposefulness of evolutionary movement of soul and body. Although Aqa Ali puts emphasis on the composition by way of unification of soul and body and other Sadrian principles in elaborating on their relationship in this world, he bases conclusions different from Sadra's ones in resurrection on this relationship. In terms of the dichotomy of purposefulness of body and purposefulness of soul, his explanation focuses on the fact that body with its worldly characteristic unites with soul, as its final end in resurrection. Using this explanation, he tries to show the distinction between his theory and that of Sadra and formalists who believe in elemental resurrection. An explanation whose the both sides are thought provoking. Key words: Mulla Sadra, Aqa Ali Tehrani, bodily resurrection, self-knowledge, the relationship between soul and body.
Possible Worlds and the Best Arrangement of Things in Fakhr Razi's View Abdullah Taravavi Amir Divani Abstract Fakhr Razi's view about possible worlds and the best arrangement of things has two parts: 1) there exists a powerful being whose knowledge, power and all his other attributes are perfect and absolute, devoid of any deficiency; 2) this being is the One God whose all attributes are perfect, absolute and devoid of any deficiency, and can create a world with the best arrangements of things if He wills. Since a world, though with the best arrangement of things, cannot be absolute so there is always emptiness between its components, which makes their movement possible; or there is emptiness in the final state of this world, through which God can limit his creation to a world with best arrangement of things and can create different worlds with the same or different perfection in that emptiness. Therefore, there is no reason to limit God's power and it cannot be said that God has created or creates only one world. Rather, His power and all other attributes are perfect, absolute and eternal and He can always create different worlds. Key words: possible worlds, the best arrangement of things, God' knowledge, God's will and power, creativity of God, emptiness.
 . Assistant professor of department of Islamic sciences and theology, Firdausi University of Mashhad
 . MA of Islamic theology and philosophy, Al-Mustafa international University, Mashhad
 . PhD of philosophy of religion and modern theological issues, Qom University
 . PhD student of philosophy of religion, Azad Islamic University, sciences and research unit, Tehran
 . Assistant professor of department of philosophy, Allamah Tabatabaii University
 .PhD student of philosophy and theology, Allamah Tabatabaii University
 . Assistant professor of department of philosophy, Allamah Tabatabaii University
 . adapted from a PhD dissertation entitled "Theological Foundations of Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt; Evaluation and Analysis"
 . Instructor of Qom Seminary and PhD student of theological schools, University of Religions and denominations
 . Associate professor of University of religions and denominations and faculty member of department of Islamic denominations, the Research Center of Religions and Denominations
 . adapted from a dissertation
 . MA of Islamic philosophy and theology, Tehran University
 . associate professor of department of Islamic philosophy and theology, Tehran University
 . Assistant professor of department of philosophy and theology, Hakim Sabzevari University
 . PhD student of philosophy and theology, Qom University
 . Associate professor of department of philosophy and theology, Mofid University