An Investigation into Sadra and Suhravardi’s Views regarding the World of Ideas

Document Type : Research Paper


1 * Ph. D. Student Transcendent Philosophy, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad- International campus

2 ** Associate Professor of Philosophy, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

3 Professor of Philosophy, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad


The way God intervenes in the natural world is considered a major and long-standing issue in the realm of theology and philosophy of religion where efforts to resolve it has led to proposing various and, at times, opposing views, spanning from determinism to delegation‌‌. By employing a novel criterion to distinguish between various divine actions in the world, the current paper attempts to present and assess Allamah Tabatabaei’s approach as an Islamic determinist philosopher in regard to the topic and seeks to lay the groundwork for offering solutions in both deterministic and indeterministic models by revisiting the causal homogeneity principle in order to find a way out of dominant intellectual impediments‌‌. To that end, the paper serves to show that by extending the concept of causal homogeneity within a deterministic framework, one can attest to the direct interference of immaterial entities in the material world, whereas by resting upon the ‘principle of causal necessity’ and a particular attitude towards the principle of homogeneity within an indeterministic framework, one can defend the interference of immaterial causes in order to realize one of the possible probabilities‌‌. 


Main Subjects

- Akbarzade, H; Kadyur, M‌‌. (1387 SH)‌‌. Jayegah-i Khiyal-i Muttasil va Munfasil dar falsafe-i Sadr al-Muta’allehin (the position of subjective and objective Imaginal World in Sadra’s philosophy), Maqalat va Barrasiha, no‌‌. 100‌‌.
- Arshad Rehayi, A; Vasei, S‌‌. (1388 SH, spring)‌‌. The World of Imagination from Mulla Sadra’s Viewpoints, Journal of Religious Thought, vol‌‌. 9, Issue 30‌‌, pp.75-102.
- Ashtiyani, J‌‌. D‌‌. (1365 SH)‌‌. Sharh-i Muqaddame-i Qaysari dar Erfan-i Islami (a commentary on Qaysari’s introduction to Ibn ‘Arabi’s Fusus al-Hikam, in Islamic mysticism)‌‌. N‌‌. p‌‌. : Daftar-i Tablighat-i Islami Publications‌‌.
- Ashtiyani, J‌‌. D‌‌. (1387 SH, winter)‌‌. Muntakhabati az Athar-i Hukama-i Ilahi-i Iran (a selection of the works of Iranian Islamic philosophers)‌‌. Qom: Daftar-i Tablighat-i Islami‌‌.
- Avicenna (Ibn Sina)‌‌. (1413 AH)‌‌. Al-Mubahithat‌‌. Qom: Bidar Publications‌‌.
- Avicenna (Ibn Sina)‌‌. (1364 SH)‌‌. Njat (salvation)‌‌. Introduction by a student‌‌. Tehran: University of Tehran Press‌‌.
- Avicenna (Ibn Sina)‌‌. (1404 AH)‌‌. An-Nafs (the soul)‌‌. Introduction by Ibrahim Madkour, Qom: Mar‘ashi Najafi Library‌‌.
- Avivenna (Ibn Sina)‌‌. (1379 SH)‌‌. Al-Ta‘liqat‌‌. 4th ed‌‌. Qom: Daftar-i Tablighat-i Islami‌‌.
- Corbin, H‌‌. (1371 SH)‌‌. Historie de la Philosophie Islamique (history of Islamic philosophy)‌‌. Translated by Asadullah Mubashiri, vol‌‌. 1‌‌. 4th ed‌‌. Tehran: Amir Kabir Publications‌‌.
- Hasanzade Amoli, H‌‌. (1375 SH)‌‌. Ettehad-i ‘Aqil be Ma‘qul (the unity of the intelligent with the intelligible)‌‌. Qom: Qiyam Publications‌‌.
- Hasanzade Amoli, H‌‌. (1382 SH)‌‌. Do Risale-i Mithl va Mithal‌‌. Tehran: Tuba Publications‌‌.
- Ibn ‘Arabi, M‌‌. (n‌‌. d‌‌. )‌‌. Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyyah (the Meccan revelations)‌‌. Beirut: Dar Sader‌‌.
- Ibn Manzur, M‌‌. M‌‌. (1416 AH)‌‌. Lisan al-‘Arab (The tongue of the Arabs – an Arabic dictionary)‌‌. Beirut: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-‘Arabi‌‌.
- Ibrahimi Dinani, G‌‌. H‌‌. (1364 SH)‌‌. Shu‘a-i Andishe va Shuhud dar Falsafe-i Suhrawardi (the light of thought and intuition in Suhrawardi’s Philosophy), Tehran: Hekmat Publications‌‌.
- Jami, A‌‌. R‌‌. (1370 SH)‌‌. Naqd an-Nusus fi Sharh-i Naqsh al-Fusus‌‌. Introduction, correction and commentary by William Chittick, Preface by Seyed Jalal al-Din Ashtiyani, 2nd ed‌‌. Tehran: Markaz-i Mutale‘at va Tahqiqat-i Farhangi‌‌.
- Lahiji, B‌‌. (1372 SH)‌‌. Risala-i Nuriyyeh dar ‘Alam-i Mithal (the illuminated treatise on the Imaginal World)‌‌. Commentary and correction by Seyed Jalal al-Din Ashtiyani‌‌. Tehran: Sazman-i Tablighat-i Islami, arts section‌‌.
- Moradi, H; Akbarian, R‌‌. (1387 SH, summer)‌‌. Tajarrud-i Khiyal va Lawazim-i Falsafi va Kalami-i An (the immateriality of imagination and its philosophical and theological requisites)‌‌. Journal of Mirror of Wisdom, no‌‌. 15‌‌, pp.67-92.
- Mutahhari, M‌‌. (1368 SH)‌‌. Majmu‘a-i Athar (a collection of works), vol‌‌. 6‌‌. Tehran: Sadra Publications‌‌.
- Qaysari, D‌‌. (1375 SH)‌‌. Sharh-i Fusus al-Hikam (a commentary on Ibn ‘Arabi’s Fusus al-Hikam)‌‌. Compiled by Seyed Jalal al-Din Ashtiyani‌‌. Tehran: ‘Ilmi va Farhangi Publication Office‌‌.
- Shahrzuri, S‌‌. D‌‌. (1372 SH)‌‌. Sharh-i Hikmat al-Ishraq (a commentary on Suhrawardi’s philosophy)‌‌. Inroduction and correction by Ziyai Torbati‌‌. Tehran: Mu’assasa-i Mutale‘at va Tahqiqat-i Farhangi‌‌.
- Shirazi, S‌‌. M‌‌. (Mulla Sadra)‌‌. (1341 SH)‌‌. ‘Arshiyyah‌‌. Translated and corrected by Ghulam Hossein Ahani‌‌. Esfahan: College of Literature, University of Esfahan Press‌‌.
- Shirazi, S‌‌. M‌‌. (Mulla Sadra)‌‌. (1360 SH)‌‌. Al-Shawahid al-Rububiyyah fi al-Manahij al-Sulukiyyah‌‌. Annotation by Haj Mulla Hadi Sabzvari, correction and commentary by Seyed Jalal al-Din Ashtiyani‌‌. Mashhad: al-Markaz al-Jami Publications‌‌.
- Shirazi, S‌‌. M‌‌. (Mulla Sadra)‌‌. (1362 SH)‌‌. Al-Mabda’ wa al-Ma‘ad (the beginning and the end)‌‌. Translated by Ahmad bin Muhammad al-Hosseini Ardekani, compiled by Abdullah Nurani‌‌. Tehran: Markaz-i Nashr-i Daneshgahi‌‌.
- Shirazi, S‌‌. M‌‌. (Mulla Sadra)‌‌. (1362 SH)‌‌. Al-Masa’il al-Qudsiyyah (Divine matters) (included witjin philosophical treatises)‌‌. Commenatry, introduction and correction by Seyed Jalal al-Din Ashtiyani‌‌. Qom: Daftar-i Tablighat-i Islami‌‌.
- Shirazi, S‌‌. M‌‌. (Mulla Sadra)‌‌. (1363 SH)‌‌. Mafatih al-Ghayb‌‌. Introduction and correction by Muhammad Khwajuy‌‌. Tehran: Mu’assasa-i Tahqiqat-i Farhangi
- Shirazi, S‌‌. M‌‌. (Mulla Sadra)‌‌. (1410 AH)‌‌. Al-Hikmat Al Muta‘alyah fi-l-asfar al-‘aqliyya al-arba‘a (The Transcendent theosophy in the Four Journeys of the Intellect), vol‌‌. 9‌‌. Beirut: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-‘Arabi‌‌.
- Suhrawardi, S‌‌. D‌‌. (1375 SH)‌‌. Majmu‘a-i Musannifat-i Shaykh Ishraq (a collection of Shaykh Ishraq’s works)‌‌. Introduction and correction by Henry Corbin, correction, annotation and introduction by Seyed Hossein Nasr, vols‌‌. 1, 2, 3‌‌. Tehran: Mu’assasa-i Mutale‘at va Tahqiqat-i Farhangi Publications‌‌.
- Torkashwand, E; Mirsepah, A‌‌. (1390 SH, autumn)‌‌. A Comparative Review on the Meaning of Barzakh and Mithāl in the works of Muslim Philosophers, Gnostics, and Theologians‌‌. Ma‘rifat-i Falsafi, no‌‌. 33‌‌, pp.105-132.
- Yazdanpanah, Y‌‌. (1389 SH)‌‌. Hikmat-i Ishraq (gozaresh, sharh va sanjesh-i dastgah-i falsafi-i Shahabuddin Suhrawardi) (Ishraq’s philosophy, an account, commentary and analysis of Shahabuddin Suhrawardi’s philosophical system)‌‌. Compiled by Mahdi Alipur, vol‌‌. 2‌‌. Qom: Pazhuheshgah-i Howze va Daneshgah‌‌.
- Yazdanpanah, Y‌‌. (1391 SH)‌‌. Mabani va Usul-i ‘Erfan-i Nazari (the foundations and principles of theoretical mysticism)‌‌. Compiled by Seyed Ata Anzali‌‌. Qom: Muʼassasa-i Amuzeshi Pazhuheshi-i Imam Khomeini‌‌.