Religious Sphere in Martin Heidegger's Thought

Document Type : Research Paper



The  religious sphere in Heidegger's thought is one of the persistent questions that consider the relation of religion, theology, philosophy in his life and his idea. His argument about ideas, religious characters and also his own points about the significance of the ideas and characters in the formation of his philosophic project, illuminates the role of religion in general and Christian theology in particular in his life and his thoughts. Although his thoughts have several sources, but Christian theology and Gnosticism have had a permanent influence on them.
 Heidegger's bases in existence analysis have common aspects with Augustine, Eckhart, Luther, and Kierkegaard. Heidegger has used phenomenology to analyze original life and believes that this life can be touched in a religious approach and such an experience can be found in primary Christianity. Although religious experience is not his only favorite subject he considers religion as a possible form of life, completely different from philosophy. Although Heidegger does not comment on the existence of God and does not take the same religious and metaphysical attitude about God, he gives some attributes about existence that is usually used for God. Lots of statements Heidegger has uttered about existence remind one of negative theology. His viewpoint can be considered as an attempt for forming a faith in contemporary world beyond its traditional forms.


1. پروتی، جیمز، 1373، الوهیت و هایدگر، محمد‌رضا جوزی، تهران، انتشارات حکمت.

2. کربن، هانری، 1383، از هایدگر تا سهروردی، حامد فولادوند، تهران، انتشارات وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی.
3. مصلح، علی اصغر، 1384، پرسش از حقیقت انسان،  قم، کتاب طه.
4. مک کواری،جان، 1376، مارتین هایدگر، محمد سعیدحنایی‌کاشانی، تهران، انتشارات گروس.
5. هودرن، ویلیام، 1368، راهنمای الاهیات پروتستان، میکائیلیان، تهران، انتشارات علمی‌و فرهنگی.
6. Barash, Jeffrey A., 1988, Martin Heidegger and the Problem of Historical Meaning, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.
7. Brian D., Ingraffia, 1995, Postmodern Theory and Biblical Theology, CambridgeUniversity Press.
8. Bultmann, Rudolf, 1987, Faith and Understanding, translated by Louise P. Smith, Philadelphia: Fortress Press.
9. Fehér, István M., 1995, ‘‘Heidegger’s Understanding of the ‘Atheism’ of Philosophy: Philosophy, Theology, and Religion in His Early Lectures up to Being and Time,’’in: American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly, 69, pp.189–228.
10. Gadamer, Hans-Georg, 1987, ‘‘Die Religiöse Dimension,’’ in Gesammelte Werke: Neuere Philosophie: Hegel, Husserl, Heidegger, Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr, vol. 3.
11. Heidegger, Martin,1949, “Remembrance of the Poet”, tr. by Douglas Scott, in: Existence and Being, W. Brock, H. Regnery (eds.), Chicago.
12. ---------------------, 1959, Unterwegs zur Sprache, Pfüllingen: Gunther Neske.
13. -------------------, 1960, “The Onto-Theo-Logical Nature of Metaphysics”, in Essays in Metaphysics: Identity and Difference, tr. by K.F. Leidecker, New   York: Philosophical Library Inc.
14. -----------------------, 1962, Being and Time, tr. by J. Macquarrie and E. Robinson, Blakwell, Oxford.
15. -----------------------, 1971, “The Thing”, in: Poetry, Language, Thought tr. by Albert Hofstadter, New York: Harper & Row.
16. -----------------------, 1976, Gesamtausgabe, vol. 9: Wegmarken, Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
17. -----------------------, 1976a, “Letter on Humanism”, Basic Writings, tr. by Frank A Capuzzi and Glenn Gray, Cambridge University Press.
18. -----------------------, 1977a, Gesamtausgabe, vol. 2: Sein und Zeit, Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
19. -----------------------, 1977b, Gesamtausgabe, vol. 1: Holzwerge. Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
20. -----------------------, 1983. Gesamtausgabe, vol. 40: Einführung in die Metaphysik. Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
       21. ------------------,1985, Gesamtausgabe,vol. 61: Phänomenologische Interpretationen zu Aristoteles. Einführung in die phänomenologische Forschung.Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
22. ----------------------, 1986, Gesamtausgabe, vol. 15: Seminare. Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
23. -----------------------, 1987, Gesamtausgabe, vol. 56/57: Zur Bestimmung der Philosophie.Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
24. -----------------------, 1988, Gesamtausgabe, vol. 63: Ontologie (Hermeneutik der Faktizität ). Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
25. -----------------------, 1989a, Martin Heidegger and Elisabeth Blochmann, Briefwechsel, ed. by Joachim W. Storck, Marbach and Neckar: Deutsche Schillergesellschaft.
26. -----------------------, 1989b, ‘‘Phänomenologisiche Interpretationen zu Aristoteles (Anzeige der hermeneutischen Situation).’’ Dilthey Jahrbuch für Philosophie und Geschichte der Geisteswissenschaften.
27. -----------------------, 1990, Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers, Briefwechsel, Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
28. -----------------------, 1993, Gesamtausgabe, vol. 58: Grundprobleme der Phänomenologie. Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann (Freiburg: WS 1919-1920).
29. -----------------------, 1993a, “What is Metaphysics” in: Basic writings, Revised and expanded edition, ed. By David Farrell Krell, London: Routledge.
30. -----------------------, 1995, Gesamtausgabe, vol. 60: Phänomenologie des religiösen Abbreviations of Principal Works xiii Lebens, Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
31. -----------------------, 1997, Gesamtausgabe, vol. 66: Besinnung.Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
32. -----------------------, 1998, Was ist Metaphysik?,Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
33. -----------------------, 1999a, Gesamtausgabe, vol. 39: Hölderlins Hymnen ‘‘Germanien’’ und ‘‘Der Rhein’’Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
34. -----------------------, 1999b, Gesamtausgabe, vol. 67: Metaphysik und Nihilismus,Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
35. -----------------------, 2002, Martin Heidegger and Heinrich Rickert, Briefe 1912 bis 1933 und andere Dokument, ed. by Alfred Denker, Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.
36. Jonas, Hans, 1963, The Gnostic Religion: The Message of the Alien God and the Beginnings of Christianity. Boston: Beacon Press.
37. ----------------------, 1964, ‘‘Heidegger and Theology,’’in: Review of Metaphysics, n. 18, pp. 207–233.
38. Kisiel, Theodore, 1993, The Genesis of Heidegger’s Being and Time, Berkeley: University of California   Press.
39. Löwith, Karl, 1942, ‘‘Martin Heidegger and Franz Rosenzweig, or Temporality and Eternity,’’ in: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, n. 3, pp. 53-77.
40.  Schleiermacher, Freidrich, 1996. On Religion, tr. by Richard Crouter, Cambridge University Press. 
41. Van Buren, John, 1994, The Young Heidegger: Rumor of the Hidden King,Bloomington: IndianaUniversity Press.