واقعیت از نگاه صدر و صدرا

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده ادبیات، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه فلسفه، دانشکده ادبیات، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

10.22091/jptr.2020.5431.2303

چکیده

شناسایی واقعیت از نگاه صدرالمتالهین که تساوی واقع با وجود را امری بدیهی تلقی می ‌کند، همان وجود شناسی است. اما شهید سید محمد باقر صدر با انکار بداهت این تساوی، سعی می‌ کند با استناد به صدق قضایایی که مطابقی موجود در خارج ندارند، واقعیت را اعم از وجود نشان دهد. اگر چه این ادعا، در اندیشۀ اسلامی طرفدارانی چون معتزله را دارد لکن شهید صدر هم در انگیزۀ بیان این ادعا و هم در محتوای آن و هم در ادلۀ ارائه نموده برای آن، از معتزلیان فاصله گرفته و دیدگاهی متقن را عرضه نموده است. به هرحال نتیجۀ این اختلاف مبنایی میان صدر و صدرا، دو توصیف کاملاً متفاوت از عالم واقع است اگرچه نسبت واقعیت با وجود، ماهیات، معقولات ثانی فلسفی، معدومات و مدرکات عقل عملی در این دو نگاه قرابت های زیادی نیز با هم دارند. پژوهش حاضر با یک نگاه تطبیقی، ابتدا عالم واقعِ صدری را در کنار وجود‌شناسی صدرایی، تبیین و ارزیابی کرده است، سپس نشان داده این دو متفکر با وجود اختلافات مبنایی در بداهت برخی گزاره ‌ها، روش مشابهی را در شناسایی واقعیت به کار بسته و در تعارض میان برهان و بداهت، هر دو جانب برهان را گرفته ‌اند. در نهایت چرایی و چگونگی تجدید نظر آنها در گزاره ‌هایی که بدیهی به نظر می ‌رسیدند، تبیین و منشاء آن، تفاوت و مرز میان وجدان عدم و عدم وجدان، دانسته شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Viewpoints of Sadr and Sadra on Reality

نویسندگان [English]

  • hasan lahootiyan 1
  • jamal sorush 2
1 Seminary, Qom,IranFaculty of Literature, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Literature, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran
چکیده [English]

According to Sadra, who believes the reality evidently equals existence, the identification of reality equals ontology. On the other hand, by denying the evidence of this equality, Sadr tries to indicate the reality includes the existence by referring to the truth of cases that do not have equivalents in the external world. Although this claim has supporters in the Islamic thought such as Mu'tazilites, but Shahid Sadr, both in motivating the expression of this claim and in its content and in the arguments presented for it, has distanced himself from the Mu'tazilites and offered a firm view.
As a result of this conflict, there are two utterly different descriptions of the world of reality. However, there are many similarities between these two viewpoints regarding the relationship between reality and existence, essences, philosophical secondary intelligibilia, and the nonexistent and perceived objects of practical reason. In the present study, first, the world of reality as defined by Sadr is analyzed and explained with regard to Sadra’s ontology using a comparative approach. Thereafter, it is indicated that these two intellectuals use similar methods to identify the reality despite the fundamental differences regarding the evidence of some propositions. They also both defend reasoning in the contradiction between reasoning and evidence. Finally, the reason for the reconsideration of the evident proposition by these two intellectuals is explained.
However, there are many similarities between these two viewpoints regarding the relationship between reality and existence, essences, philosophical secondary intelligibilia, and the nonexistent and perceived objects of practical reason. In the present study, first, the world of reality as defined by Sadr is analyzed and explained with regard to Sadra’s ontology using a comparative approach. Thereafter, it is indicated that these two intellectuals use similar methods to identify the reality despite the fundamental differences regarding the evidence of some propositions. They also both defend reasoning in the contradiction between reasoning and evidence. Finally, the reason for the reconsideration of the evident proposition by these two intellectuals is explained.
However, there are many similarities between these two viewpoints regarding the relationship between reality and existence, essences, philosophical secondary intelligibilia, and the nonexistent and perceived objects of practical reason. In the present study, first, the world of reality as defined by Sadr is analyzed and explained with regard to Sadra’s ontology using a comparative approach. Thereafter, it is indicated that these two intellectuals use similar methods to identify the reality despite the fundamental differences regarding the evidence of some propositions. They also both defend reasoning in the contradiction between reasoning and evidence. Finally, the reason for the reconsideration of the evident proposition by these two intellectuals is explained.According to Sadra, who believes the reality evidently equals existence, the identification of reality equals ontology. On the other hand, by denying the evidence of this equality, Sadr tries to indicate the reality includes the existence by referring to the truth of cases that do not have equivalents in the external world. Although this claim has supporters in the Islamic thought such as

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • reality
  • Sadr
  • objectivity
  • Sadra
  • philosophical secondary intelligibilia
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