بررسی مبانی و الزامات اخلاقی در تعیین حد و حوزهٔ جرم‌انگاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانش آموخته دکتری دانشگاه قم

10.22091/jptr.2021.6551.2485

چکیده

چکیده
ربط و رابطهٔ اخلاق و حقوق همواره یکی از چالش‌برانگیز‌ترین بحث‌های فلسفی معاصر بوده است. صرف‌ نظر از دلایل و الزامات اخلاقی ناظر به اتباع و اطاعت از قانون، این که در تعیین و تضییق حدّ و حوزه جرم‌انگاری، چه ملاحظات و الزامات اخلاقی را باید مهم و مقدم دانسته و مطمح نظر قرار داد، همواره از مناقشه‌برانگیز‌ترین پرسش‌ها حوزه فلسفۀ اخلاق و حقوق بوده است. به‌بیان دیگر، فیلسوفان اخلاق و حقوق - از دیرباز - در صدد کشف / برساختن معیار و مبنایی اخلاقاً مربوط و موجّه برای تعیین مرز و ‌‌‌محدودیت‌های قانون‌گذاری و جُرم‌انگاری و توسعه و تضییق در گسترهٔ نفوذ و اقتدار قانونگذار در جزادهی و جرم‌انگاری بوده‌اند و در همین راستا، از منظری اخلاقی به طرح و تدوین اصولی دست یازیده‌اند که افزون بر تعیین و تبیین مبنا و محدویت‌های حوزه جزا و جرم‌انگاری، روال ورویه‌های ‌‌قانوگذاری و تعیین و تشخیص اعمال و رویه‌های ‌مجرمانه، را تبیین و تسهیل سازند و از منظری دیگر، مجرا و مبنایی موجٔه برای دخالتِ قانونی در حریم خصوصی و حوزهٔ آزادی‌های فردی فراهم آورند. در این پژوهش، به بررسی و نقد اهم اصول و دلایل اخلاقاً مربوط در تعیین و تحدید قلمرو جرم انگاری - با تأکید و تمرکز ویژه بر اصول و انگار‌های لیبرالیستی - پرداخته شده است. شایان ذکر است که برخی صاحب‌نظران تقریرهای تازه و بنوعی تجدید‌نظرطلبانه ارایه کرده‌اند که البته، افزون بر آنکه برروایی گونه‌ای خاص از پدرسالاری مبتنی‌اند، ‌نشان‌دهندهٔ گرایش به اخلاق‌گرایی حقوقی و پرهیز از پیش‌فرض‌های سودگرایانه و لیبرالیستی کلاسیک نیز هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Examining the principles and ethical requirements in determining the extent and scope of criminology

نویسنده [English]

  • S.Mohammad Hosaini Sorake
Ph.D. graduate student at the University of Qom
چکیده [English]

The relationship between moral philosophy and philosophy of law has always been one of the most challenging contemporary philosophical debates. One of the most controversial questions has always been the field of ethics and law in determining and narrowing the limits and scope of criminology, what considerations and moral requirements should be considered and given priority. In other words, philosophers of ethics and law have long sought to discover / construct a morally relevant criterion and basis for defining the boundaries and limitations of legislation and criminology, and to develop and narrow the scope of the legislature's influence and authority in prosecution and criminality. infact, they have designed and codified principles that, in addition to determining and explaining the basis and limitations of the field of punishment and criminology, explain and facilitate the procedures and procedures of legislation and determination and detection of criminal acts and procedures, and from another point of view, Provide justification for legal interference with privacy and individual freedoms. In this research, the most important principles and ethically relevant reasons in determining and delimiting the realm of criminology - with special emphasis on liberal principles and ideas - have been studied. It is worth mentioning that some philosophers in the field of moral philosophy and philosophy of law, while acknowledging the ineffectiveness of the old and classical basic and principles of criminology, have tried to reinterpret the previous principles and in this regard have presented new and revised interpretations. They are specific to paternalism, they also indicate a tendency towards moral legalism and the avoidance of classical utilitarian and liberal presuppositions.
The relationship between moral philosophy and philosophy of law has always been one of the most challenging contemporary philosophical debates. One of the most controversial questions has always been the field of ethics and law in determining and narrowing the limits and scope of criminology, what considerations and moral requirements should be considered and given priority. In other words, philosophers of ethics and law have long sought to discover / construct a morally relevant criterion and basis for defining the boundaries and limitations of legislation and criminology, and to develop and narrow the scope of the legislature's influence and authority in prosecution and criminality. infact, they have designed and codified principles that, in addition to determining and explaining the basis and limitations of the field of punishment and criminology, explain and facilitate the procedures and procedures of legislation and determination and detection of criminal acts and procedures, and from another point of view, Provide justification for legal interference with privacy and individual freedoms. In this research, the most important principles and ethically relevant reasons in determining and delimiting the realm of criminology - with special emphasis on liberal principles and ideas - have been studied. It is worth mentioning that some philosophers in the field of moral philosophy and philosophy of law, while acknowledging the ineffectiveness of the old and classical basic and principles of criminology, have tried to reinterpret the previous principles and .

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ethics and philosophy of law
  • ethics
  • legal ethics
  • moral limitations of criminology
  • paternalism
  • philosophy of law
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