مقایسۀ تسلّی‌بخشی‌های ابن‌سینا و کانت در مواجهه با فقر مالی

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه فلسفه و کلام اسلامی، دانشکده الهیات، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه الزهرا

3 دانشیار دانشگاه الزهرا (س)

10.22091/jptr.2021.6736.2507

چکیده

فقر مالی از دیرباز، مادر بسیاری از مشکلات فردی و اجتماعی جوامع انسانی شمرده شده است و متفکّران بزرگی این معضل را در آثار خویش مورد بحث قرار داده‌اند. در آثار فیلسوفانی همچون ابن‌سینا و کانت، که به حکمت عملی توجّه خاصّی داشتند، دربارۀ «فقر مالی» مطالبی مطرح است. پژوهش پیش روبه روش توصیفی تحلیلی، در تبیین و مقایسۀ نظرات و توصیه‌های این دو فیلسوف در مواجهه با این معضل میکوشد. «تسلّی» در عرف، به معنای آرام کردن شخص اندوهگین یا مصیبت‌زده است امّا معنای اصطلاحی تسلّی در فلسفه و علوم اجتماعی، قدری موسّع از معنای عرفی آن است و عبارت از آرامش بخشیدن به شخص از طریق نوع نگاه او به مشکلات و ارائۀ راهکار برای رفع معضلات است. ابن‌سینا برای تسلّی‌بخشی به فقیران، آثار سوء فقر مالی را واکاوی می‌کند. به باور شیخ، «محرومیت از لذّت‌های حسّی» لازمۀ مهم فقر مالی است. او راه کنار آمدن با فقر را در گرو عبور از امور حسّی و شناخت لذّت‌های فراحسّی می‌داند، زیرا نه تنها کسب آن لذّت‌ها بدون تمکّن مالی امکان‌پذیر است، بلکه قوّت و دوام لذّتهای فراحسّی بسی فراتر از لذّت‌های حسّی است. امّا کانت ضمن اذعان به مشکلات عدیدۀ فقر مالی، شرایط تحمّل فقر را برای انسان‌ها نمی‌پذیرد و برای کنار آمدن با فقر مالی و تحمّل آثار سوء آن، راهکار و درمانی، جز کسب ثروت نمی‌شناسد؛ از این‌رو فیلسوف آلمانی بر عنصر کار و تلاش برای کسب ثروت تأکید فراوانی دارد. به نظر کانت، انسان با تمکّن مالی می-تواند از هنر و تخصّص دیگران بهره‌مند شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparing the consolations of Ibn Sina and Kant in the face of financial poverty

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mona Forozian 1
  • Foruzan Rasekhi 2
  • Narges Nazarnejad 3
1 Department of Islamic Philosophy and Theology, Faculty of Theology, Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran
2 University of Alzahra
3 University of alzahra
چکیده [English]

Throughout history, philosophy has always been accused of being abstract and unrelated to the everyday issues of human life, so some later philosophers have offered solutions to some individual problems and social problems. Some of them are called "philosophical consolations". Of course, "consolation" in custom means to calm a sad or afflicted person, but the meaning of the term consolation in philosophy and social sciences is somewhat broader than its customary meaning, and it means to calm the person through the way he looks at problems and Provide a solution to the problems. Although philosophical counseling is a contemporary movement in the field of practical philosophy; But this does not mean that previous philosophers were silent about it; Rather, some of them, in the form of practical wisdom discussions, have developed specific epistemological points and practical approaches to address the shortcomings of everyday life, including "financial poverty."
But among Muslim philosophers, Ibn Sina is more famous than others. While getting acquainted with Aristotle's practical wisdom, Farabi's additions to it and some of the opinions of the scholars of Ikhwan al-Safa, he used a new innovative style in the discussions of practical wisdom and therefore in the Islamic tradition, he has influenced all his later philosophers. On the other hand, in the West, Immanuel Kant attached considerable importance to practical philosophy over theoretical philosophy. To this end, Kant also paid special attention to the philosophy of ethics, and his teachings overshadowed the ideas of most late Western thinkers.
Because "financial poverty" has long been considered the mother of many physical and mental problems in human societies; The present research tries to explain and compare the recommendations of Ibn Sina and Kant in the face of the mentioned problem by descriptive-analytical method. In Ibn Sina's words, in addition to Aristotelian teachings, there are also Enlightenment approaches influenced by religious texts, but Kant, as one of the system-building thinkers in the Enlightenment, lacks Enlightenment views and rationally focuses on Customary affairs provide a solution. Ibn Sina conducts his discussion on the basis of rational and metaphysical concepts; But most of Kant's views are based on his empirical approach to human cognition, although he finds the science of "anthropology" very slippery, at least in terms of method, and finds its results uncertain.
Ibn Sina examines the ill effects of financial poverty in order to comfort the poor. Ibn Sina has considered "deprivation of sensory pleasures" as an important necessity of financial poverty and considers the way to cope with poverty to depend on the passage of sensory affairs and knowledge of extra-sensory pleasures. Trans-sensory pleasure includes sensual pleasure (illusory or imaginary) and intellectual pleasure, which can be achieved even without material wealth, and the perception of intellectual pleasures may erase the bitterness of poverty and its effects for human beings. But while acknowledging the many problems of financial poverty, Kant knows that there is no cure for it other than wealth, so he places great emphasis on the element of work and effort. Since he considers poverty to be the greatest cause of carnal vices, he calls the acquisition of wealth through work, since it leads to happiness, man's duty to himself.
Ibn Sina's idea is in fact one of the methods of tolerating poverty and tolerating it, and with Ibn Sina's solution, the maximum psychological effects of poverty are removed. But Kant does not accept the conditions for tolerating poverty for human beings; Basically, in Kant's view, money solves most, if not all, of worldly problems, because man, with financial means, can benefit from the art and expertise of others.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Consolation of Philosophy
  • Ibn Sina
  • Kant
  • Financial Poverty
  • Sensory Pleasures
  • Trans-Sensory Pleasures
  • Gaining Wealth
  • Element of Work
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