انواع حق در دانش فلسفه حق.. 7 - 32
محمدحسین طالبی و علی طالبی
بررسی انسجام در قول به بقای نفس همراه با فساد بدن.. 33 - 56
سید احمدرضا شاهرخی
علت فاعلی ایجادی در تفکر فلاسفه یونان باستان.. 57 - 78
فلسفه بعثت انبیا؛ کاستی یا بیداری عقل؟. 79 - 100
بررسی نسبت وصی و امام در مذاهب اسماعیلیه و اثناعشریه. 101 - 120
مهدی دشتبزرگی و احمد لهراسبی
کثرتگرایی دینی: بررسی و تحلیل تطبیقی دیدگاه استاد مطهری و کارل رانر. 121 - 140
محمدجواد نجفی و جواد محمدی
بررسی تطبیقی نفسشناسی افلاطون و ارسطو در سعادت و فضیلت اخلاقی.. 141 - 160
غلامحسین روحی سراجی
متن کامل مجله پژوهش های فلسفی و کلامی شماره 61(پاییز1393)
Philosophical – Theological Research
The Quarterly Journal of Qom University
Under the supervision of the vice – president for research
Vol. 16, No. 1, Autumn 2014. Proprietor: University of Qom Chief director: Muhammad Zabihi. Ph.D Chief Editor: Ahmad Beheshti, Ph.D
Board of writers
Ahmad Beheshti, Ph.D; Gholam-Hossein Ebrahimi Dinani, Ph.D; Mohsen Javadi, Ph.D; Hojatoleslam Sadeq Larigani; Mostapha Mohaqqeq Damad, Ph.D; Hojatoleslam Abdollah noorani; Jafar Shahnazari, Ph.D; Muhammad Zabihi, Ph.D
Internal director and editorial – board director: Alireza Moazami Editor: Zeinab Salehi Layout: Hosein Moazami
The Journal Philosophical – Theological Researches accepts papers on the Western and Islamic philosophy, modern and Islamic theology, mysticism, and ethics. The papers received will be published provided that they are written according to the house style of the journal. The authors will bear responsibilities for their own papers.
Types of Rights in the Philosophy of Right
Mohammad Hussein Talebi
The present paper provides a philosophical explanation on the absolute types of rights according to their first divisions in the philosophy of rights. In the philosophy of right, rights can be divided into different types based on different parameters which include: 1. the origin of the formation of right; 2. the elements of right; 3. necessary concomitance of right and duty; and 4. transferability and non-transferability of right. In all these divisions, absolute right, i.e. the right unconditioned on a moral, legal, and political, etc. limitation, is divided. The aforementioned parameters validates twelve types of rights which respectively include moral and legal right, the right of God and non-God, authentic and consequential right, the right concomitant and non-concomitant with duty (that is, the right of claim, and otherwise.), vindication-deserving right and non-vindication-deserving right, transferable and non-transferable right. It is obvious that some of these types are new. Key words: types of right, moral right, legal right, authentic right, consequential right, right of claim, vindication-deserving right, transferable right.
A Study on the Cohesion in the Belief in the Preservation of the Soul along with the Corruption of Body
Seyyed Ahmad Reza Shahrokhi
The corruption of body after the departure of soul is a visible fact which needs no proof. Given the involvement of body in the creation of soul, however, the fact that soul does not corrupt along with the corruption of body needs to be proved. Therefore, the present paper seeks to provide an answer to this fundamental question "how does the soul continues to survive after the corruption of body while the body involves in its creation?" from the view of three great Muslim philosophers, Avicenna, Sohrevardi, and Sadr al-din Shirazi. The review of these philosophers' answers to the question indicates that Sadr al-din Shirazi, who differentiates between the creation and survival of soul in terms of immateriality, holds that body can be the condition of soul's creation at the beginning of the creation, but soul is needless of body for its survival. On the contrary, Avicenna and Sohrevardi, who regard soul as immaterial in creation and survival, hold that soul depends on receptive cause (body) and efficient cause in both creation and survival and that denying soul's dependence on receptive cause (body) in survival phase and its non-corruption along with corruption of body is a baseless claim. Key words: creation of soul, creation of body, survival of soul, corruption of body, Sohrevardi, Avicenna, Sadr al-din Shirazi.
Greek Philosophers' view about Life-giving Efficient Cause
The issue of efficient cause is one of the important discussions which can be studied in ancient Greek philosophy. The present paper first examines the issue in the pre-Socrates philosophy and then in the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. A number of the Greek philosophers believe only in the natural cause, that is, the matter of matters, whereas others are convinced of the existence of the unnatural non-life-giving efficient cause. They think that being does not come from non-being, so the universe is eternal and cannot have a life-giver. So, ancient Greek philosophers' belief in being coming from non-being is contrary to the foundation of their thinking. Given the external aspect of their works, they do not believe in the mode of creation forwarded by the Abrahamic religions. Their god is, therefore, different from God in divine faiths. Keywords: efficient cause, material cause, life-giving efficient cause, pre-Socrates ancient Greek philosophers, God.
The Philosophy of Prophets' Mission: the Deficiency or Awaking of Intellect?
Abdul Rahim Soleimani
Why has God sent prophets to men? This question has been answered from different angles one of which is related to the question "what is the man's deficiency which should be made up by divine revelation?" The answers to this question are common in fact that they regard man's intellect and reason deficient and unable to formulate rules to manage the society or bring felicity and perfection for him. The present paper reviews and elaborates on the views of four previous and three contemporary philosophers and finally emphasizes the point that, based on Islamic texts, it is not necessary to regard man's intellect and reason deficient and unable in order to justify prophethood and revelation. Key words: prophets' mission, revelation, man, intellect, philosophy of prophethood.
A Review of the Relationship between Wasi (Trustee) and Imam in Isma'iliyyah (Seveners) and Ithna Ashariyyah (Twelvers) Schools
Ahmad Lohrasbi Isma'iliyyah and Ithna Ashariyah are two Shi'ite schools, with many similarities and differences on different matters such as Holy Prophet's successor and trustee. Both schools believe that holy Prophet of Islam (May the blessing and peace of Allah be upon him and his progeny) has clearly appointed his successor. Their difference on this point, however, is that Imamiyyah regards Imam and trustee as the same person (that is the principle of executorship (Wesayat) is the same as the principle of Imamate), while Isma'iliyyah regards and studies them separately. Isma'iliyyah holds that the position of executorship is specific to Ali Ibn Abitalib (peace be upon him) who is Imam and was the rational Holy Prophet's companion and confident during his lifetime. After the trustee, there comes the position of Imams. According to some Isma'iliyyah scholars, Imam Hassan is the first Imam and Ismail Ibn Sadiq is the sixth one. Except for Ali Ibn Abi Talib who is considered as the trustee in both schools, other Imams from Imam Hassan onward are not endowed with the position of the Wesayat, in Isma'iliyyah school. The present paper proves the very distinction between the position of Imamate and Wesayat through providing some evidence from the works of Ismaili theologians and other researchers. Key words: Shi'a, Ithna Ashariyyah, Isma'iliyyah, Imamate, executorship.
Pluralism: a Comparative Review and Analysis of Motahhari and Karl Rahner's View
Mohammad Jawad Najafi
Religious pluralism is one of the important issues which first emerged in western scientific circles and then spread among Muslim thinkers. Many western and eastern thinkers, philosophers, and theologians have discussed the issue and proposed different views and discussions. The present paper seeks to review the issue, with emphasis on question of salvation in Karl Rahner and Murtaza Motahhari's view, two Christian and Muslim theosophers, respectively. In this regard, both of them believe in "inclusivism". While emphasizing the legitimacy of only a single religion, Inclusivism holds that other religions can lead to salvation. Rahner proposes the notion of "Anonymous Christians" and Motahhari proposes the notion of "Inherent Muslims", through which they explain the possibility of non-Christians and non-Muslims' salvation. Rahner believes that the necessary condition for salvation is enjoying Jesus's effluence through good deeds and morality and avoidance of sins as well as the testimony of personal conscience for the truthfulness of non-Christians. Similarly, Motahhari believes that non-Muslims benefactors deserve salvation if they do not show clear enmity and do not have the possibility of inquiry into true religion, and holds that their sins are forgivable if they fail to understand the truth and experience intellectual suffering. Key words: religious pluralism, salvation, Karl Rahner, Motahhari, inherent Muslims, anonymous Christians.
A Comparative Study of Plato and Aristotle's Psychology in Moral Virtue and Felicity
Gholam Hussein Roohi Seraji
Human felicity, which is considered man's final end, is one of the important issues which has long been discussed by both Muslim and non-Muslim thinkers in all periods. The present paper studies the issue from the view of two prominent Greek thinkers, Plato and Aristotle, and shows that man needs to recognize the factors of felicity, i.e. attaining the highest goodness, virtue, spiritual journey and illumination, to attain felicity and achieve his final felicity through the careful examination of affairs. Furthermore, this paper reviews the way of attaining felicity, intellectual virtues, the relationship between intellect and felicity. Finally it compares and evaluates these two thinkers' views. Key words: Plato, Aristotle, felicity, affliction, moral virtues, intellectual virtues.
 . Assistant professor of Philosophy of rights, the Research Institute of Hawzah and University
 . MA student of social communications, Qom IRIB University
 . Assistant professor of department of Islamic philosophy and theology, Qom University
 . instructor of Kashan Azad Islamic University
 . Assistant professor of department of philosophy, Mofid University
 . Assistant professor of department of religions and philosophy, Kashan University
 . PhD student of Shahid Motahhari University, Tehran
 . Assistant professor of department of Quranic Sciences and traditions
 . PhD student of Quranic Sciences and traditions, Avicenna University
 . Assistant professor of department of Islamic philosophy and theology, Qom University