عنوان مقاله [English]
The theory of modes has been officially propounded for the first time by the Mu'tazilite theologian Abu Hashim Jobayei. This theory, which is related to issue of Divine attributes, has been proposed to confront with the constraint of polytheism. However, many philosophers and theologians have rejected it. Philosophers' views apparently indicate that they regard the theory of modes and the theory of subsistent as synonymous. Therefore, the criticism of the theory of modes is evaluated in the context of its difference with the theory of subsistent and challenges against its developers. Critics of these two theories mainly emphasize on the irrationality of intermediary between existence and non-existence and criticize theological views using this ontological approach and focusing on the Divine knowledge of the non-existent. In fact, the theory of modes, apart from the quality of divine knowledge, is related to the manner of qualifying God with absolute attributes and is similarly propounded in Shi'a thoughts by Hisham b. Hakam before its proposition in Mu'tazilite school. The congruence of the aforementioned theologians' and philosophers' views on the relationship between essence and attributes provides the ground for pursuing the hidden relationship between their views with mystical ones, which separates mystics from philosophers. Therefore, Historical rereading of this theory and recounting of its functions is necessary due to the importance of the issue of God's attributes on the one hand, and the Shi'ite school's record of such theories and its particular discussions of subtle doctrinal issues on the other hand.