عنوان مقاله [English]
The reduction of the field of science to the limits of experience from the eighteenth century and the monopoly of its methods and tools in quantification and material senses, as well as the use of reason as a concept, has limited the scope of human beings; in such a way that the attainment of indulgence was increasingly considered as his goal in the material world. The purpose of this article is to provide another definition of science by considering the courts of Ibn Sina’s (Avicenna) philosophy in the fields of ontology, anthropology, epistemology, and methodology; a definition that fits the principle of human end and happiness. Comparing the components of the above-mentioned vertices in Ibn Sina's philosophy, science finds an intensifying range from the second level (sensory cognition) to the highest level (Frost science) and each time in comparison to the levels of love. And happiness corresponds with this; in such a way that man becomes more in love and closer to ultimate happiness by intensifying his knowledge. Intensification science, with the permission of multiple understandings, closes the way to the monologue logic of dogmatism, and on the other hand, according to the monotheistic system in Ibn Sina's philosophy, it never leads to unbridled relativity and skepticism arising from the new hermeneutics.
According to thinkers in this field, a definition of science that is appropriate to Muslim societies should have several characteristics and these characteristics are not discussed at all in experimental science: It should:
Have a divine origin.
Have a longitudinal, not transverse, view of the hierarchy of existence; because neglecting the longitudinal hierarchy leads to neglecting the fit between metaphysics and physics, in which case metaphysics is either marginalized or considered ineffective on physics.
Be based on discovering the truth and not just material usefulness.
Its language is sometimes cryptic and symbolic and is not limited to the dictionary of mathematics and statistics.
Now that we see these characteristics clearly in the ontology, anthropology, and epistemology of Muslim philosophers, including Ibn Sina, we seek to answer the following question: How can Ibn Sina, as a Muslim philosopher, deduce another meaning of science? The findings of this study are summarized as follows:
Love has many levels, and each of these levels corresponds to different levels of human happiness. On the other hand, the level of human happiness is completely in line with the level of human perception. This includes multiple levels, from the lowest to the highest. That is, sensory perception - which is the lowest kind of perception - corresponds perfectly to the lowest kind of love as well as the lowest kind of happiness. This type of science is called intensification science and unlike experimental science, it does not limit and confine science only in the field of experience.
Thus, the science of intensification in the school of Ibn Sina has characteristics that are appropriate to the life of Muslim societies; because in the coordinates of this science, the system of existence has a longitudinal hierarchy and in this hierarchy, transcendence is the source of beings and true happiness is achieved by reaching and maximum likeness to it by passing the levels of sense and appearance. By discussing the true happiness of human beings in the science of intensity, unlike empirical science, the absurdity of life is reduced and its meaning is increased, and it is by the promotion of this science that true happiness is achieved; something that empirical science can never do.