عنوان مقاله [English]
Using the principle of "every temporal occurrence is preceded by a potentiality and matter which bears the former", Avicenna proved the existence of matter and potentiality (dispositional possibility). Subsequent philosophers and theologians reviewed and criticized the principle, Avicenna's argument and the relationship between essential possibility and dispositional possibility. Some of them hold that the two possibilities are equivocal, so Avicenna's argument as a fallacy of equivocation. Others regarded his argument devoid of any problem through proving that these two possibilities are univocal. Accepting body as a composition of matter and form is one of the requirements for believing in aforementioned principle. Therefore, such philosophers as Sohrevardi, Fakhr Razi, and Khawja Nassir who denied body as a composition of matter and form did not accept the principle. Issues related to dispositional possibility and its relationship with essential possibility were ambiguous before the advent of Transcendent Theosophy. After its advent, however, some of its followers proved and explained the principle "every temporal occurrence is preceded by a potentiality and matter which bears the former" and univocality of essential possibility and dispositional possibility using such principles as fundamentality and gradational unity of existence, and thence the validity of Avicenna's argument.