عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
By laying down the principles of probabilities arithmetic, Mohammad Baqir Sadr tried to offer a new reading of argument from design to be efficient for proving the Necessary. The concept of probability has particular complexities and dual meaning from its very initial proposition (statistical probability and epistemological probability). This duality caused different interpretation of probabilities arithmetic. Based on his own basic principles and by using such concepts as non-detailed knowledge and subjective certainty, Sadr regarded the probability the degree of rational belief which is based on external evidence. Having differentiated between conditional and independent probabilities, he scientifically-inductively arranged the hypothesis of believing in God. Thinkers, especially some contemporary Muslim thinkers, criticized the application of probabilities arithmetic in the argument from design. Some thinkers essentially disagreed with the empirical nature of this argumentation and others permitted the application of probabilities arithmetic not only in proving the existence of God but also in the scope of conceptual intellect by referring to the principle of non-difference and sameness of members of a probable set, but reject it as making certainty. Having reviewed the concept of "probability" and its different interpretations, the present paper seeks to provide a criterion for selecting a proper definition. Then it exposes Sadr's argument and tries to find appropriate answers for criticisms and doubts cast on this kind of argumentation.