عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
God’s relation to the world, a subject whose history is as lengthy as human thinking, is among the basic issues of philosophy and the Kalam in the Islamic world. Problems such as the why and how of emerging the order of creation and paradoxes such as unity and multiplicity, contingent and eternal, will and causal necessity, the First of the first things, and the Last of the last things, and so on are only a few questions of the numberless ones which have preoccupied thinkers during the history; consequently, there emerged -isms like sophism, naturalism, humanism, and theism as well as many other schools of thought, which show the continuous efforts of thinkers for explication of the relation between God and His creatures. Taking a look at the background of God’s Providence (`inayah), a divine attribute which necessitates ‘the best order’, this article indicates God’s activity, describes the viewpoints of two famous philosophers in the Islamic world, i.e., Ibn Sina and Mulla Sadra, , and shows the differences of their opinions in this regard.