عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
In Jean-Paul Sartre’s view, being is subdivided into three regions: being-in-itself which lacks self-consciousness and is massive, full and actual; being for-itself or consciousness which is dynamic and spontaneous; and finally being-for-others. The principle which is the starting point of Sartre’s thought is the notion of man’s existence preceding his essence, which paves the way for man’s liberty, free choice, responsibility, and realization of his identity in future. The ‘for-itself’ is the same as man but not in regard to his body but with respect to his awareness, freedom, actions, and power to negate. Consciousness alone is meaningless; it is always shaped through relationships with the world and other consciousnesses. Man can always negate some affairs, so he is totally free; his freedom although is total but is within a set of human circumstances. Awareness of this total freedom and responsibility is accompanied by ‘anguish’; and such freedom opens up a range of possibilities which may result in bad faith and self-deception. Freedom and self-consciousness are manifested in our actions and our actions constitute ourselves.