عنوان مقاله [English]
The main purpose of this article is to answer the question of what methods and resources the philosopher has at his disposal in answering the goals of First Philosophy and in order to achieve philosophical theories, and how much and how to use them properly. In order to answer this question, the present article believes that determining the methods and resources used in First Philosophy is dependent on the purpose and subject of this science, and if the question is to be answered, what sources and methods are allowed for the philosopher to use in answering a philosophical question, the position of the goal, and the subject of philosophy must be carefully examined. It is worth mentioning that as a result of this study, other issues raised in this framework, such as the relationship between intuition, revelation, and experience with First philosophy and the scope of their influence on First Philosophy are also clarified. Therefore, the premise of the article in answer to this question is that there is a direct relationship between the purpose, subject, and method of philosophy, and determining the method and sources of knowledge used in First Philosophy is dependent on the purpose and subject of First philosophy. By considering the subject and issues raised in First Philosophy, the discussion of the commonalities between the subjects of science or various facts is discovered to be the main goal of First Philosophy. And by considering two basic stages in the methodology of sciences: 1) Problem design and hypothesis making, and 2) Assessment and exploration of theory, we come to the conclusion that they play a role alongside rational analysis in the area of philosophical problem design, specific and general intuitions (sensory-internal) transfer and experience. Due to the fact that the discussion of commonalities is related to the multiplicity of subjects and facts, and that multiplicities and facts can be identified through different sources, First Philosophy owes its existence to different sources of knowledge. But in the position of judgment and measurement, in matters related to absolute existence, the only usable source is rational analysis, and in matters related to the principles and divisions of existence that deal with the subjects of science, given that these divisions may reach cases whose study requires the use of intuition or revelation or experience, along with rational analysis; intuition, sense, and experience are also used. Considering the purpose of universality and universal provability requires the impossibility of using narrative methods (albeit definitive) in the study of philosophical issues, the stipulation of certainty in philosophical results and theories will also pave the way for the use of uncertain methods such as incomplete induction in the design of philosophical claims. Therefore, in the field of measuring and exploring theories, it should be considered in detail if we emphasize the universality of the provability of philosophical problems to accidents of existence, only rational analysis (rational intuition) is applied and to the principles of existence and divisions of existence – related to the subjects of science – rational analysis is applied along with intuition, experience, and induction. And if epistemic reference is not considered in detail, in all three cases, in addition to rational analysis and experience, definitive citation can also be used.